Ukraine

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In early March 2014 the StopFake.org site was launched in Ukraine to identify and debunk Russian disinformation that was specifically targeting Ukraine.   Journalists, editors, IT specialists and others came together as volunteers to tackle this critical element of modern hybrid warfare.  At that time Ukraine faced both the annexation of Crimea and the beginning of a Russian invasion of Donbas, after then-president Viktor Yanokovych fled following the shooting of over one hundred demonstrators in Kyiv during the Maidan revolution.

The recent escalation in violence in Donbas has again been preceded and accompanied by an increased amount of disinformation in pro-Kremlin media.  This has been reported by the EU East StratCom Task Force, who have tracked the upsurge of hate-speech and aggressive rhetoric in a number of discussion programmes on Russian TV.

After months of limited coverage of Ukraine in world news, the renewed fighting around the town of Avdiivka has thrust the story back into the headlines. This is a town I visited in April 2016 as part of a project to document the impact of the war with Russia in Donbas...

On 17 July 2014, Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 was shot down over eastern Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board. This unprecedented tragedy led to an unprecedented maelstrom of information and disinformation. The Russian authorities accused Ukraine of the shooting-down; Ukraine accused Russia and the Russian-backed separatists fighting in Ukraine. 
The U.S. House of Representatives and Senate have begun discussing a bill on "countering foreign propaganda and disinformation". The draft states that "foreign governments, including the Governments of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, use disinformation and other propaganda tools to undermine the national security objectives of the United States and key allies and partners", and calls for the creation of a Center for Information Analysis and Response.
The U.S. Senate has begun discussing a bill on "countering information warfare". The draft states that "foreign governments, including the Governments of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, use disinformation and other propaganda tools to undermine the national security objectives of the United States and key allies and partners", and calls for the creation of a Center for Information Analysis and Response.