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Attacks on the media in the USA by the White House and talk of "fake news" and "alternative facts" have created an aura of disinformation which worries many. But whilst it is vital to monitor the messages coming from President Donald Trump and his entourage, it is equally important to bear in mind the differences between this and Russian disinformation.

The Kremlin has turned its disinformation machine on those who are investigating the shoot-down of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 over Ukraine in July of 2014, using state employees, state-run media, and the state-run, though unacknowledged, “troll factory” of fake Internet accounts.

The primary goal of the media attacks has been to undermine the credibility of citizen journalist group Bellingcat, an independent researcher into the crash. The attacks have followed a pattern which could be termed "vilify and amplify".