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The terrorist group Daesh has launched an extremely sophisticated information campaign targeting a wide range of audiences. In this study, the NATO-accredited Centre of Excellence for Strategic Communications in Latvia analyses the methods and messages which Daesh uses and the evolution of its information campaign.
Responding to disinformation and hostile influence demands a whole-of-society approach. In this study, Jakub Janda of the European Values think tank proposes out a tool-box of fifty measures to reinforce democratic societies and raise awareness of the dangers of disinformation. 
The U.S. House of Representatives and Senate have begun discussing a bill on "countering foreign propaganda and disinformation". The draft states that "foreign governments, including the Governments of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, use disinformation and other propaganda tools to undermine the national security objectives of the United States and key allies and partners", and calls for the creation of a Center for Information Analysis and Response.
The U.S. Senate has begun discussing a bill on "countering information warfare". The draft states that "foreign governments, including the Governments of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, use disinformation and other propaganda tools to undermine the national security objectives of the United States and key allies and partners", and calls for the creation of a Center for Information Analysis and Response.

On 21 September 2015, following complaints from members of the public, the UK broadcasting regulator, Ofcom, found Russian TV station RT guilty of a serious violation of the broadcasting code, which states that broadcasters must observe "due impartiality" in their reporting of major events. 

RT's programming had accused the Ukrainian government of genocide in Eastern Ukraine, without giving adequate coverage to the government's own side of the story. 

This link leads to the full text of the ruling.

Russia's disinformation campaign is well-funded and broad-spectrum, but it is also predictable. It relies on blaming the West for Russia's own actions. To attack its perceived its opponents, it uses four main techniques: dismiss, distort, distract, and dismay. 

These 4 Ds can be used to predict Russia's actions and prepare an appropriate response. 

In this report for the Central European Policy Institute, Ben Nimmo analyses the 4 Ds and the potential responses.