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Russia's disinformation follows a pattern which can be viewed as 4D: dismiss, distort, distract, dismay. China's reaction to the ruling by a tribunal of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in the Hague appears to have followed a similar pattern.  Chinese official and media statements attempted to dismiss the credibility of the tribunal, including personal attacks on its members. Officials appeared to distort the legal situation and distract attention from the core findings, and some used apparent dismaying tactics, raising the spectre of war. 
The Western, and particularly the EU, regulatory machine is unfit for purpose when it comes to dealing with China and other non-OECD Investors.
The U.S. House of Representatives and Senate have begun discussing a bill on "countering foreign propaganda and disinformation". The draft states that "foreign governments, including the Governments of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, use disinformation and other propaganda tools to undermine the national security objectives of the United States and key allies and partners", and calls for the creation of a Center for Information Analysis and Response.
The U.S. Senate has begun discussing a bill on "countering information warfare". The draft states that "foreign governments, including the Governments of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, use disinformation and other propaganda tools to undermine the national security objectives of the United States and key allies and partners", and calls for the creation of a Center for Information Analysis and Response.
In 1985, a Soviet leader came to power, leading one of the two superpowers in a bi-polar world, commanding a powerful military, and leading a party mandated with changing the world. Mikhail Gorbachev was also equipped with something far more powerful than the weapons in the Soviet arsenal...
China's 'Three Warfares' have elevated information warfare to a central plank of its security policy. In this article for the Legatum Institute, Laura Jackson explores the Three Warfares and their effects.